Foam rolling – Is it useful?
Foam rolling is a technique with which, at the time of writing this (it’s 2019), almost anyone interested in reading this physiotherapy blog would be familiar.
Foam rolling involves the use your body weight over a foam (or at least a foam covered) cylinder to mash your tissues (muscles and tendons and fascia) into submission.
The idea with foam rolling is that the massage type intervention helps to break up the scarred over microtraumas that come over the longer term with regular participation in exercise and sport type physical activity. After all, athletes have been using massage for centuries (if not millenia) as part of a physical maintenance regimen [some quoe from gaoelen on the medicinal benefit of massage]
If traditional massage is useful for maintenance of the athletic body, then why not self massage, delivered in this case via the foam roller? Great question I say! That’s what we will explore a bit in this article
Of course, there are other techniques that one can use to manage muscle dysfunction, like stretching for example. First of all I should say that I think stretching is very often inappropriately used. There are many reasons for this. First of all, stretching before sport participation has not been shown to reduce the incidence of injury versus plain jane warmup. In fact not only has it not been shown to reduce injury incidence. But a bout of stretching HAS been shown to reduce strength and power in exercise immediately following.
What stretching does do is train flexibility, and the goal of increasing flexibility is the reason to perform stretching. Stretching should be activity specific. This means that if your sport or activity requires greater range of motion (ROM) than you have, stretching is a great way to train for that sport. It’s no different than the rational to train strength, power or endurance. If the activity requires it, then you should train it.
Foam rolling is an alternative method for training ROM. Using foam rolling to improve ROM is not uncontroversial, not all researchers agree that it’s as effective intervention, especially when compared to stretching. However, at this point more of the current research suggests that, at least in the short term foam rolling can improve muscle compliance and by extension, flexibility.
- If stretching a muscle reduces strength and power immediately following…
- …and if foam rolling can used as alternative to stretching for the purposes of flexibility trabnining…
- …can foam rolling provide benefits that are similar to stretching WITHOUT those unwanted performance losses?
Bouts of foam rolling may induce short term increases ROM. Many studies have looked into the benefits to flexibility from foam rolling and the results in regard have been mixed, but do suggest that thre are short term increases in ROM after foam rolling.
Interestingly, some researchers have investigated the effects of foam rolling on various measures of strength and power. The idea being that if SMR helps to reduce muscle dysfunction then measures of athletic performance that may be affected would include power exercises.
The research has not borne out this idea. On some key measures of strength and power, including short distance sprint times, maximal squat weight and vertical jump height no improvements have been shown.
The good news is that foam rolling does not appear to negatively influence strength and power whereas there is evidence that stretching immediately before strength or power exercise can reduce performance.
Ultimately, if you are looking to train flexibility, focus more on stretching protocols. However, in a warm up, as an alternative to stretching you may consider keeping foam rolling for short term flexibility improvements (eg, during the event that you are warming up for) that will not negatively impact strength and power.
One very interesting outcome from more than one of these studies however is that the perception of fatigue after strength training is reduced in those who foam roll compared with those who do not. This is in addition to a reduction in the perception of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). This is a post-exercise soreness lasting about 48 hours that will be familiar to many athletes.
So if you are looking for a muscle release technique that is a heck of a lot cheaper than a professional massage and that can improve flexibility in the short term without the unfortunate decrementsin power incuced from longer bouts of stretching, then foam rolling is a great option for you. And, *Bonus*, foam rolling may also reduce DOMS (exercise induced muscle soreness) and reduce perceptions of fatigue during a workout, which is a huge win!
Have a look at the suggestions in the video above and try it out for yourself. let me know how it goes!
If you have any questions about this or any other physiotherapy related issue, just ask!
Other reading (if you really want to impress your friends)
Behm, D. G., & Chaouachi, A. (2011). A review of the acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on performance. European journal of applied physiology, 111(11), 2633-2651.
Cole, G. (2018). The Evidence Behind Foam Rolling: A Review. Sport and olympic-paralympic studies journal: SOPSJ, 3(1), 194-206.
Couture, G., Karlik, D., Glass, S. C., & Hatzel, B. M. (2015). The effect of foam rolling duration on hamstring range of motion. The open orthopaedics journal, 9, 450.
Healey, K. C., Hatfield, D. L., Blanpied, P., Dorfman, L. R., & Riebe, D. (2014). The effects of myofascial release with foam rolling on performance. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 28(1), 61-68.
Miller, K. (2019) THE EFFECTS OF FOAM ROLLING ON MAXIMAL SPRINT PERFORMANCE AND RANGE OF MOTION, Journal of Australian Strength and conditioning, 27(01):15-26